Frustrated because efforts to encourage greater teamwork and collaboration aren’t working? Part two of this series challenges leaders to focus on what they do more than what they say.
Perhaps you’ve been to awards ceremonies like the one described in yesterday’s post: Do You Inspect What You Expect? Have you participated in change efforts where buzzwords were one thing and the behavior quite another? Thirty seven years ago, Steve Kerr wrote a classic article: On The Folly of Rewarding A While Hoping for B, citing the frequent inconsistency between what gets said and what gets rewarded in many organizations. If A gets rewarded, A gets done – regardless of the number of colorful posters extolling the virtues of B. To get something different we must do something different.
For organizations that want to experience expected behaviors beyond vision statements or values lists, Morton Hansen describes the basic routes to get there in his book Collaboration: How Leaders Avoid the Traps, Create Unity and Reap Big Results. First, know what you want when you see it. Then, choose associates who demonstrate these behaviors, especially in hire and promote decisions. Finally, encourage change in associates already in your organization by recognizing the behavior you want.
Are your eyes rolling? Oh, if it were only that easy. It’s not easy, but it’s also not as hard as some might think. It’s certainly not as hard as rewarding A and hoping for B. There are three ways to modify behavior to aspirations that organizations of all types, sizes and resources can effectively use.
1. Describe it. Words like “Teamwork” and “Collaboration” conjure up all kinds of behaviors for people. The characters rewarded from the last post are good examples. The Region X leader might legitimately feel his role is to lead the team. He leads, you follow. Know people who think like that? The Breakthrough Innovation leader thinks she collaborates because she brings people together for everything. Don’t assume people understand expected behavior through labels alone. Be explicit. Hansen offers an example. In German software maker SAP, the leaders didn’t just state they expected “collaboration” and hoped everyone would know what they meant. They stated an expectation that “leaders would ensure the appropriate involvement of others across roles, departments and locations to accomplish goals.” It’s clear, has room for adaption, yet specific enough to spot it when it happens (or doesn’t).
2. Measure it. The gift of stating expectations in observable behavior means that people know it when they see it. When that happens, measurement is possible. In rewarding behavior change, how you measure is as important as what you measure. To really understand how someone is changing his or her behavior, ask peers and subordinates. Tools like Survey Monkey make this type of anonymous feedback easier than ever. Hansen cites an unnamed investment bank that asks associates to rank their peers on a scale of helpfulness, and the list of the top ranked is provided to the senior team. What a powerful idea! Can you imagine the behavior change in some organizations if rating and ranking of behavior came from the bottom up as well as the top down?
3. Reward it. This is the most obvious and brings us back full circle. Think of rewards, including incentives, promotions, and honors, as spotlights. They illuminate behaviors the organization wants and brings its intentions to life. Rewards also take the most discipline. It’s tough to tell Region Leader X that he’s not getting the award because of his behavior. It’s difficult to deny the enthusiasm and effort of the Breakthrough Innovation Leader because her focus is misdirected. Resist the temptation to dodge disappointment. Disappointment is temporary, your message is lasting.
These three steps look simple. Simple doesn’t mean easy. Easy is doing what you always do and expecting something different. While Hansen’s three steps for changing behavior of incumbents might not ultimately be enough, it’s hard to imagine a change plan without them. And, it’s a place to start. Sometimes, that’s the hardest place to find.
Part Two of Two
Kerr, S. (1975). On the Folly of Rewarding A While Hoping For B. Academy of Management Journal, vol. 18. No. 4, pp. 769-783.
Hansen, M.T. (2009). Collaboration: How Leaders Avoid the Traps, Create Unity and Reap Big Results. Boston: Harvard Business Press.
Photo from istockphoto.
- Making the Jump from Good to Great – 3 ways to get started (leaderchat.org)
- Leaders Who Don’t Support Collaboration Should be Replaced (jmorganmarketing.com)